Lesson 10

 
Setting Up An Effects Bus
 
While you can put an effect on each channel strip in the
Mix Window, you would quickly use up your computer's RAM and resources. There is a better way to send an effect to multiple channels using a Bus.
 
Set up a new Logic Project with an audio drum loop.
 
Open up the
Environment Window by going to the Window pull down menu and selecting Environment or by typing command-8 on your computer keyboard.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.44.34 AM

 
You should now see the
Environment Window
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.42.48 AM

 
We are now going to add a
Bus.
 
Go to the
New pull down menu and select Channel Strip and then Bus
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.45.15 AM
 
 
You will now see a
Bus strip appear in your Environment Window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.46.11 AM
 
Hit the
esc key on your keyboard and select the Text Tool
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.47.37 AM

 
 Name your Bus 1 track Verb 1
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.46.57 AM

 
Hit the
esc key and select the pointer tool.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.47.48 AM
We now need to add a reverb or effect to our
Bus 1 verb track.

Click on the top
Inserts panel in the Bus 1 Track
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.49.46 AM

 
From the
Inserts pull down menu, select Reverb, Space Designer, Stereo.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.50.14 AM

 
You will now see the
Space Designer reverb plug-in appear.
 
image012
 
The
Space Designer plug will also appear in your Verb 1 track.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.51.11 AM
 
Locate the pull down menu located in the middle of the
Space Designer window.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.00 AM

 
Select
Large Spaces, Rooms, Big Drums
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.45 AM

You will now see the preset appear in
Space Designer


 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.52.57 AM
Once you have done that, you need to assign the
output of your Bus Verb Track to Stereo Out.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.54.52 AM

 
Now move back to the
Arrange Window and click on the Window pull down menu and select Open Mixer. Or use the keyboard short cut Command-2
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.55.49 AM

 
You should now see your
Verb 1 Bus track appearing in your Mixer Window.

Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.57.50 AM
 
If you don't see your bus track, click on the
All Button located at the top of the Mixer Window.
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.57.58 AM
 
You
Verb 1 Bus track will now be displayed.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 3.58.45 AM

 
Since we want to add reverb to our
drum track, we now need to bus the reverb to that track.
 
Locate the
Sends panels in the middle of the Drum Track
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.01.53 AM
 
Select
Bus 1
 Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.19 AM

You will now see the Bus appear in the Sends:

Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.32 AM

 
Now hold down the
Option key on your computer keyboard and click on the Send knob to the right of Bus 1. This will move the send knob to its half-way point, sending the verb effect to your track.
 
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.05.40 AM

Also note that by grabbing the
Send Knob with your mouse, you can control the amount of send signal that you want to go to the Bus, or Aux Track.


Play the track back and you should now hear the reverb on the drum track.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-19 at 4.08.12 AM
 
You can control the amount of reverb by moving the track slider on your
Verb 1 Bus Track.
 
Now you can bus that reverb to any number of tracks without too much strain on your CPU.
 
To view a brief tutorial on creating an effects bus in Logic, click on the following link:

 
Clip 18
 
Logic Project 12:
 
Create a new Logic Project and add an acoustic (no electronic drums) audio drum loop. Create a verb bus and bus the effect to your drum track. Try to get a natural sound to your drum loop. Make sure that you clearly label all tracks. Post This on Moodle.
 
 
Using Auto Punch
 
There may be times when you are recording that you want to record several takes in a single session and then go back and select the same take. Or, you may want to simply replace a bit of audio on a recorded take. This is where you would use
Auto Punch in Logic.
 
Let's say that you have recorded an audio track and cracked a couple of notes in the performance. On the whole, you are happy with the recorded track except for those couple of notes. Instead of re-recording the entire track, you just need to re-record a couple of notes.

You will probably have to
Customize your Control Bar.

Control Click anywhere on your Control Bar:
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.05.26 AM

Select Customize Control Bar and Display

Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.05.37 AM

Under the
Modes and Functions column select Autopunch and click OK



Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.08.58 AM

You will now see the
Autopunch icon appear on the right hand side of your Control Bar:


 Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.09.27 AM
Select
Auto Punch by clicking on the button in the Control Bar.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.12.00 AM
 
It will now turn red indicating that it is enabled.

 
Not that it is enabled,
Auto Punch will now also appear as a red bar in your ruler at the top of the Arrange Window.
 Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.12.20 AM

 
Adjust the
Auto Punch bar over the audio that you want to replace. This works just like our cycle bar.

Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.13.39 AM
 
Adjust your
Cycle Region to two or three bars before the audio that you want to replace to give you time before you re-record the new audio.
 
Hit
Record on your transport bar and punch in your new audio.
 
Logic will keep your original track intact and add your newly created track as well.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.15.28 AM
 
Also notice that your
Punch In has been added to the Browsers Window. Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.19.06 AM
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-20 at 4.18.46 AM
 
If you are not happy with your new performance, simply hit
Command-Z on your computer keyboard and do it again!
 
 
Reverb Basics
 
You are going to find that as a composer you will probably have to do audio engineering as well. Most of the clients that you work for will not have the extra funds to hire a composer and an audio engineer. You are going to have to wear two hats!
 
The effects that come with Logic are among the best and most complicated plug-ins that are available. Having said that, they are very complex and you will need to spend time with them, experiment, and let your ears be the final guide. Audio engineering is an art, not a science. There is no set formula for getting that next great mix or sound. Your ears will always have the final say.
 
The function of reverb is to create a space around a sound in a controlled acoustical environment. Here is a list of the most common reverb spaces:
 
Large hall This is typically a concert hall where symphony orchestras perform. Examples in the "real" world include Symphony Hall in Boston and Carnegie Hall in New York.
 
Small Hall Usually around 2000 square feet and is typically a recital hall where chamber groups would perform.
 
Stage This can be thought of as a stage in a night club and is typically 20-30 feet.
Room This can be any room where of about 30-50 square feet. It may also be somewhat "dry" sounding. These also include bathrooms, which can contain a lot of reverb!
 
Studio Technology now allows us to emulate the sound of the rooms in major recording studios. These typically come in three sizes.
 
Studio A for large groups such as orchestras used for Hollywood film stages.
 
Studio B for smaller ensembles and pop type groups.
 
Studio C for smaller more intimate groups
 
Cathedrals emulate the reflections typically found in larger stone cathedrals found in Europe such as Notre Dame in France. Typically used for larger groups.
 
Reverb Applications In Logic
 
There are several parameters that you can tweak while using Logic's effects.
 
Room Shape gives us the geometric dimensions of the room ranging from a value of 3-7 representing the corners in a room in the form of a graphic display.
 
image030
Graphic display of a room shape in Logic's GoldVerb
 
Room Size This provides us with the dimensions of the room and the length of the walls (distance between 2 corners). The distance is measured in meters from 1-100. This can be strange to Americans as we prefer feet. Conversion is fairly simple:
 
Meters X 3.28 = Feet
 
For example, 20 meters would be:
 
20x3.28 which equals 65.6 feet.
 
In the following screen shot using
GoldVerb as a plug in on an audio track, the Room Size is set to 20 meters or roughly 66 feet. (rounded up). When you adjust the Room Size the graphic display of the Room Shape will automatically be adjusted as well.
 
image032
Room size set to 20m or 65.6 feet
 
Note: Averb and SilverVerb function differently from what I described above. Both have room sizes of 1-200 with no real explanation of what those numbers mean and no geometrical representation of room size. Experiment and use your ears to get the best results.
 

 
More Reverb Controls
 
To better understand the following concepts, insert
AVerb into an audio track. For this tutorial I have selected an acoustic drum loop.
 
image033
 
image034
 
You should now see the
AVerb Control window.
 
image035
 
Mix- this lets us choose a balance between Wet (with reverb) and Dry (no reverb). The default is usually 100%. I usually start at about 20% and use my ears to dictate the proper amount. Simply grad the slider and move it up/down to change the Mix Value.
 
Experiment with different
Mix values on your drum track.
 
Pre-delay allows you to determine when you hear the reverb start to work. The lower the number the faster you will hear the reverb start to work. Again, experiment with this setting as it is going to vary from instrument to instrument.
 
Initial delay this is not available on all reverbs. This adjusts the placement of the dry sound in relation to the time it enters. A longer initial delay will allow the dry sound to enter later in time. Again, you need to experiment with different instruments.
 
Reflectivity this defines how much reflection there will be off the walls, ceiling, and floor of the sampled reverb room. In the "real" world walls etc will be made of different materials such as, plaster, stone, carpet, glass etc. These have a dramatic effect on the sound of the reverb. You have to experiment to find the Reflectivity setting that sounds the most natural to you.
 
Density/Time This determines the density of the reverb and the duration of the reverb. As with all the other settings, there is no hard and fast rules-use your ears!
 
Presets The engineers at Apple have put together some great presets for all of the effects in Logic. We can learn a lot from these Presets.
 
To select a
Preset click on the default pull down menu located at the top of the effect.
 
image036
 
You can then select a reverb designed by Apple
 
image037
 
Note the settings. If you like the sound you can save it as your own, or tweak the settings a bit and save it as a new reverb. Once you have done this for a while you will develop a whole new set of effects that work well with the music you are writing.
 
To De-Select An Effect
 
To change or
De-select an effect, click on the effect name in the channel strip and select no plug-in.
 
image038
 
Even More Reverb Controls
 
To better explain the following controls keep your drum track and insert
GoldVerb into the channel strip.
 
image039
 
We have a couple of new controls to discuss.
 
 
Stereo Base
 
image040
 
This control gives you the position of two "virtual" microphone placed in the stereo field. The range is 0.0-2 meters for a distance of about 6.5 feet.
 
Experiment with moving the distance one meter at a time. What you are doing is creating a wider stereo field as you increase the number.
 
Spread
 
image041
 
This functions almost like
Stereo Base except that it is controlling the stereo image of the reverb. As you increase the number you are expanding the reverb print.
 
High Cut
 
image042
 
This control allows you to shape the EQ built into the reverb so you can EQ a total dry sound or a dry sound with added reverb. Use your ears to experiment.
Turning High Cut down emulates a smaller room with softer surfaces. Turning High Cut up emulates a room with harder surfaces and gives you the impression that you are in a larger room.
 
Experiment with the different reverbs and reverb settings on different instruments. Also use Apple's presets as a starting place. There are some great presets included with Logic.
 
Compressor Basics
 
image044
 
You can think of a
compressor as an automated mixing board that levels out the dynamic range of a sound or track so that the sound is uniform and does not jump up and down in your mix.
 
There are
Five Basic Controls:
 
Ratio- This is the first step in the compressor set up and can be thought of as input level to output level. This is typically measured as a ratio. For example, a 3:1 compression ratio indicates that only 1/3 of the signal is output and so on. This, in effect, smoothes out your audio output signal so you can better control the sound in the mix. 3:1 and 7:1 compressions are the most natural sounding. Again, let your ears make the final determination as to the best ratio.
 
Attack and Release (or decay) This should be your second step when setting up a compressor. Usually a good starting place is an attack time of around 1ms and a release time between ½  to 1 second. Let your ears make the decision.
 
Threshold should be your last setting. This is the amount of Gain Reduction that will be applied to your track or sound. Once a sound hits the Threshold level the compressor will start to work. Be very careful when setting this level, usually 3dB to 6dB will get the job done. Let your ears make the final decision.
 
Gain This will turn up the volume of the entire signal. This is how you get a signal "hotter" in the mix. Be very careful not to over compress your mixes. Let your ears be your final guide.
 
Logic comes bundled with several compressors that can be inserted into a channel strip located under
Dynamics. Experiment with each one and how they shape your sounds.
 
image045
 
 
Film Scoring In Logic
  
I am going to provide you with a small QuickTime Movie (Courtesy of the folks at Sibelius) to import. Click on the link below and save the movie to your desktop.
  
Mr. Bean QuickTime Movie
 
Create a new Logic Project and add either an audio track or Software Instrument track.

Save your project to the desktop and make sure that you select
Organize my project as a Folder

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.37.27 AM

You should now see your Logic project folder appear on your desktop:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.40.01 AM

Place your
Mr. Bean Movie into the folder. We do this so that you will always know where your movie is in case you move the project to another hard drive etc.


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.38.52 AM

This way your movie will always be moved with the project if you ever move the folder.

 
First we need to prepare Logic to read the proper SMPTE time code for the movie. If you are not familiar with SMPTE time code please click on the link below:
 
SMPTE
 

Preparing Logic For Video Import

Now we need to determine the FPS (frames per second) of our Mr. Bean Movie.

Double click on the Mr. Bean movie to open it in
QuickTime


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.30.56 AM


To determine the Frame Rate of a movie, make sure the movie is selected and click on command-i on your computer keyboard. You should now see the following:

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.31.49 AM

Notice that the frame rate for the Mr. Bean movie:

FPS: 30

This is telling us that the movie is playing at 30 frames per second. When we set up our Logic project for this movie
we are going to need that information.


Open up your newly created Logic Movie Project and go to the
Logic Pro X Preferences pull down menu
and select
Display...
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.51.29 AM
 
  
You will now see the
Displays dialog box.

Make sure
Display Time as: SMPTE/EBU with Subframes is selected

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.55.31 AM
 

Close the
Preferences Window by clicking on the upper left-hand close box in the window.

Go to the
File pull down menu and select Movie, Open Movie...

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.57.34 AM

Locate your movie in your Logic Project folder and open it:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.57.57 AM




You will now see the following dialog box:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 3.58.07 AM

Make sure both boxes are selected and click OK.


Your movie will now appear in your Logic project. You will also notice that Logic has added a Movie track and Audio track to your Arrange Window:


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.12.04 AM



Most of the time you do not want the movie appearing in the middle of your arrange window. This is when having a two monitor setup it GREAT!

To move the movie into the
info area of the arrange window. Click on the X in the upper Left hand side of the movie. Your movie will now collapse into the Info column

Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.03.59 AM

Note: If you do not see your move in the Info area, make your that you have the Info icon selected on the top left hand side of the Arrange Window


Screen Shot 2014-02-24 at 4.06.57 AM



 
We now want to set Logic's SMPTE code to match that of our movie.
 
Go to the
Logic Pro X pull down menu and select Movie
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.03 AM

You will now see the
Preferences window:
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.26 AM

Select
Movie Project Settings…


Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.06.32 AM

You will now see the
Project Settings Menu

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.11.01 AM



 
Select
Synchronization located in the top of the Project Settings menu
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.08.29 AM

 
From the
Frame Rate: pull down menu, select 30 to match our movie.
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.13.25 AM

You may see the following window, YES we do indeed want 30!

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.13.14 AM

 
Close the window by clicking on the upper left-hand corner.

Now we need to set our
Display Mode to Beats and Time

Click and hold on the Display Mode icon

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.17.12 AM


Select
Beats and Time

Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.20.22 AM



I like to see a giant SMPTE display when I am scoring movies. To do this
 
Click and hold again on the
Display Mode icon and select Open Giant Time Display
Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.22.59 AM

You will now see a floating window that displays our
SMPTE (time mode for our movie)


Screen Shot 2014-02-25 at 4.23.11 AM

 
To view a brief tutorial on importing a movie into Logic, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 20


Exporting Your Soundtrack
 
Once you have composed your soundtrack you can export all or a portion of the movie. Here is how you do this:
 
Select the portion of the movie that you want to export using
Cycle
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.06.38 AM
 
From the
File pull down menu select Movie, Export Audio to Movie…
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.06.52 AM
 
You will now see the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.07.22 AM
 
Notice that I am saving it to the
desktop and that I am renaming the movie as Mr. Bean Clip
Now I know that this is a different movie than the original.
 
Click
OK and you will now see the following:
 
Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.10.17 AM

Keep clicking
OK and you will see your movie on your desktop complete with your soundtrack and the movie's original audio.

Screen Shot 2014-02-26 at 4.10.55 AM
 
 
This concludes our basic Logic tutorial. This is by no means a complete tutorial for Logic. Logic is a VERY deep program and I have only scratched the surface here. Please go through the Apple Training Series on Logic.

In Lesson 11 I am going to cover two new exciting features in Logic Pro X

Drummer (and drum kit designer)

Flexing Vocals (time and pitch)



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