Lesson 12

 
Setting Up An Effects Bus
 
While you can put an effect on each channel strip in the Mix Window, you would quickly use up your computer's RAM and resources. There is a better way to send an effect to multiple channels using a Bus.
 
Set up a new Logic Project with an audio drum loop.
 
Open up the Environment Window by going to the Window pull down menu and selecting Environment or by typing command-8 on your computer keyboard.
 
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You should now see the Environment Window
 
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We are now going to add a Bus.
 
Go to the New pull down menu and select Channel Strip and then Bus
 
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You will now see a Bus strip appear in your Environment Window.
 
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Hit the esc key on your keyboard and select the Text Tool
 
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 Name your Bus 1 track Verb 1
 
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Hit the esc key and select the pointer tool.
 
We now need to add a reverb or effect to our Bus 1 verb track.
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Click on the top Inserts panel in the Bus 1 Track
 
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From the Inserts pull down menu, select Reverb, Space Designer, Stereo.
 
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You will now see the Space Designer reverb plug-in appear.
 
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The Space Designer plug will also appear in your Verb 1 track.
 
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Locate the pull down menu located in the middle of the Space Designer window.
 
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Select Large Spaces, Rooms, Big Drums
 
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Once you have done that, you need to assign the output of your Bus Verb Track to Stereo Out.
 
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Now move back to the Arrange Window and click on the Mixer button at the bottom of the Arrange Window to display your Mixer.
 
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You should now see your Verb 1 Bus track appearing in your Mixer Window.
 
If you don't see your bus track, click on the All Button located at the top of the Mixer Window.
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You Verb 1 Bus track will now be displayed.
 
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Since we want to add reverb to our drum track, we now need to bus the reverb to that track.
 
Locate the Sends panels in the middle of the Drum Track
 
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Select Bus 1
 
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Now hold down the Option key on your computer keyboard and click on the Send knob to the right of Bus 1. This will move the send knob to its half-way point, sending the verb effect to your track.
 
 
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Play the track back and you should now hear the reverb on the drum track.
 
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You can control the amount of reverb by moving the track slider on your Verb 1 Bus Track.
 
Now you can bus that reverb to any number of tracks without too much strain on your CPU.
 
To view a brief tutorial on creating an effects bus in Logic, click on the following link:

 
Clip 18
 
 
 
 
 
 
Logic Project 12:
 
Create a new Logic Project and add an acoustic (no electronic drums) audio drum loop. Create a verb bus and bus the effect to your drum track. Try to get a natural sound to your drum loop. Make sure that you clearly label all tracks.
 
 
Using Auto Punch
 
There may be times when you are recording that you want to record several takes in a single session and then go back and select the same take. Or, you may want to simply replace a bit of audio on a recorded take. This is where you would use
Auto Punch in Logic.
 
Let's say that you have recorded a track and cracked a couple of notes in the performance. On the whole, you are happy with the recorded track except for those couple of notes. Instead of re-recording the entire track, you just need to re-record a couple of notes.
 
Select
Auto Punch by clicking on the button in the Transport Window.
 
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It will now turn red indicating that it is enabled.
 
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Not that it is enabled,
Auto Punch will now also appear as a red bar in your ruler at the top of the Arrange Window.
 
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Adjust the
Auto Punch bar over the audio that you want to replace.
 
Adjust your
Cycle Region to two or three bars before the audio that you want to replace to give you time before you re-record the new audio.
 
Hit
Record on your transport bar and punch in your new audio.
 
Logic will keep your original track intact and add your newly created track as well.
 
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Also notice that your
Punch In has been added to the Audio Bin in the Media Window.
 
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If you are not happy with your new performance, simply hit
Command-Z on your computer keyboard and do it again!
 
To view a brief tutorial on using Auto Punch in Logic, click on the following link:
 

 
Clip 19
 
Reverb Basics
 
You are going to find that as a composer you will probably have to do audio engineering as well. Most of the clients that you work for will not have the extra funds to hire a composer and an audio engineer. You are going to have to wear two hats!
 
The effects that come with Logic are among the best and most complicated plug-ins that are available. Having said that, they are very complex and you will need to spend time with them, experiment, and let your ears be the final guide. Audio engineering is an art, not a science. There is no set formula for getting that next great mix or sound. Your ears will always have the final say.
 
The function of reverb is to create a space around a sound in a controlled acoustical environment. Here is a list of the most common reverb spaces:
 
Large hall This is typically a concert hall where symphony orchestras perform. Examples in the "real" world include Symphony Hall in Boston and Carnegie Hall in New York.
 
Small Hall Usually around 2000 square feet and is typically a recital hall where chamber groups would perform.
 
Stage This can be thought of as a stage in a night club and is typically 20-30 feet.
Room This can be any room where of about 30-50 square feet. It may also be somewhat "dry" sounding. These also include bathrooms, which can contain a lot of reverb!
 
Studio Technology now allows us to emulate the sound of the rooms in major recording studios. These typically come in three sizes.
 
Studio A for large groups such as orchestras used for Hollywood film stages.
 
Studio B for smaller ensembles and pop type groups.
 
Studio C for smaller more intimate groups
 
Cathedrals emulate the reflections typically found in larger stone cathedrals found in Europe such as Notre Dame in France. Typically used for larger groups.
 
Reverb Applications In Logic
 
There are several parameters that you can tweak while using Logic's effects.
 
Room Shape gives us the geometric dimensions of the room ranging from a value of 3-7 representing the corners in a room in the form of a graphic display.
 
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Graphic display of a room shape in Logic's GoldVerb
 
Room Size This provides us with the dimensions of the room and the length of the walls (distance between 2 corners). The distance is measured in meters from 1-100. This can be strange to Americans as we prefer feet. Conversion is fairly simple:
 
Meters X 3.28 = Feet
 
For example, 20 meters would be:
 
20x3.28 which equals 65.6 feet.
 
In the following screen shot using
GoldVerb as a plug in on an audio track, the Room Size is set to 20 meters or roughly 66 feet. (rounded up). When you adjust the Room Size the graphic display of the Room Shape will automatically be adjusted as well.
 
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Room size set to 20m or 65.6 feet
 
Note: Averb and SilverVerb function differently from what I described above. Both have room sizes of 1-200 with no real explanation of what those numbers mean and no geometrical representation of room size. Experiment and use your ears to get the best results.
 
 
 
 
More Reverb Controls
 
To better understand the following concepts, insert
AVerb into an audio track. For this tutorial I have selected an acoustic drum loop.
 
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You should now see the
AVerb Control window.
 
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Mix- this lets us choose a balance between Wet (with reverb) and Dry (no reverb). The default is usually 100%. I usually start at about 20% and use my ears to dictate the proper amount. Simply grad the slider and move it up/down to change the Mix Value.
 
Experiment with different
Mix values on your drum track.
 
Pre-delay allows you to determine when you hear the reverb start to work. The lower the number the faster you will hear the reverb start to work. Again, experiment with this setting as it is going to vary from instrument to instrument.
 
Initial delay this is not available on all reverbs. This adjusts the placement of the dry sound in relation to the time it enters. A longer initial delay will allow the dry sound to enter later in time. Again, you need to experiment with different instruments.
 
Reflectivity this defines how much reflection there will be off the walls, ceiling, and floor of the sampled reverb room. In the "real" world walls etc will be made of different materials such as, plaster, stone, carpet, glass etc. These have a dramatic effect on the sound of the reverb. You have to experiment to find the Reflectivity setting that sounds the most natural to you.
 
Density/Time This determines the density of the reverb and the duration of the reverb. As with all the other settings, there is no hard and fast rules-use your ears!
 
Presets The engineers at Apple have put together some great presets for all of the effects in Logic. We can learn a lot from these Presets.
 
To select a
Preset click on the default pull down menu located at the top of the effect.
 
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You can then select a reverb designed by Apple
 
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Note the settings. If you like the sound you can save it as your own, or tweak the settings a bit and save it as a new reverb. Once you have done this for a while you will develop a whole new set of effects that work well with the music you are writing.
 
To De-Select An Effect
 
To change or
De-select an effect, click on the effect name in the channel strip and select no plug-in.
 
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Even More Reverb Controls
 
To better explain the following controls keep your drum track and insert
GoldVerb into the channel strip.
 
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We have a couple of new controls to discuss.
 
 
Stereo Base
 
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This control gives you the position of two "virtual" microphone placed in the stereo field. The range is 0.0-2 meters for a distance of about 6.5 feet.
 
Experiment with moving the distance one meter at a time. What you are doing is creating a wider stereo field as you increase the number.
 
Spread
 
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This functions almost like
Stereo Base except that it is controlling the stereo image of the reverb. As you increase the number you are expanding the reverb print.
 
High Cut
 
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This control allows you to shape the EQ built into the reverb so you can EQ a total dry sound or a dry sound with added reverb. Use your ears to experiment.
Turning High Cut down emulates a smaller room with softer surfaces. Turning High Cut up emulates a room with harder surfaces and gives you the impression that you are in a larger room.
 
Experiment with the different reverbs and reverb settings on different instruments. Also use Apple's presets as a starting place. There are some great presets included with Logic.
 
Compressor Basics
 
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You can think of a
compressor as an automated mixing board that levels out the dynamic range of a sound or track so that the sound is uniform and does not jump up and down in your mix.
 
There are
Five Basic Controls:
 
Ratio- This is the first step in the compressor set up and can be thought of as input level to output level. This is typically measured as a ratio. For example, a 3:1 compression ratio indicates that only 1/3 of the signal is output and so on. This, in effect, smoothes out your audio output signal so you can better control the sound in the mix. 3:1 and 7:1 compressions are the most natural sounding. Again, let your ears make the final determination as to the best ratio.
 
Attack and Release (or decay) This should be your second step when setting up a compressor. Usually a good starting place is an attack time of around 1ms and a release time between ½  to 1 second. Let your ears make the decision.
 
Threshold should be your last setting. This is the amount of Gain Reduction that will be applied to your track or sound. Once a sound hits the Threshold level the compressor will start to work. Be very careful when setting this level, usually 3dB to 6dB will get the job done. Let your ears make the final decision.
 
Gain This will turn up the volume of the entire signal. This is how you get a signal "hotter" in the mix. Be very careful not to over compress your mixes. Let your ears be your final guide.
 
Logic comes bundled with several compressors that can be inserted into a channel strip located under
Dynamics. Experiment with each one and how they shape your sounds.
 
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Film Scoring In Logic
 
I am going to conclude our Logic tutorial with a quick tutorial on how to import a
QuickTime Movie into Logic for work with film scoring.
 
I am going to give you a small QuickTime Movie (Courtesy of the folks at Sibelius) to import. Click on the link below and save the movie to your desktop.
 
Note: This movie was not created in Standard Video format, so the SMPTE code is not present (more on that below). This will just give you a basic idea on the process involved in importing a movie into Logic.
 
Mr. Bean QuickTime Movie
 
Create a new Logic Project and add either an audio track or Software Instrument track.
 
First we need to prepare Logic to read the proper SMPTE time code for the movie. If you are not familiar with SMPTE time code please click on the link below:
 
SMPTE
 

 
 
Preparing Logic For Video Import
 
Once you have created a new project, go to the
Preferences pull down menu
 
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Select
Display from the pull down menu
 
 
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Make sure that in the
Displays dialog box you have selected
Display SMPTE Without Bits
 
 
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Close the
Preferences Window by clicking on the upper left-hand close box in the window.
 
Locate the
Global Tracks pull down menu in the Arrange Window
 
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Control-Click on the Global Tracks pull down menu and you will now see the following:
 
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Select
Video from the pull down menu. You should now see the following:
 
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The first thing we want to do is to determine the
Frame Rate of the movie that we want to import into Logic.
 
Locate your movie on your desktop. Double click on it to launch QuickTime.
 
You should now see your movie
 
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To determine the
Frame Rate of a movie, make sure the movie is selected and click on command-i on your computer keyboard. You should now see the following:
 
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Note the
FPS: In this case in reads 24 or 24 Frames Per Second.
 
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We now want to set Logic's SMPTE code to match that of our movie.
 
Go to the
Settings pull down menu
 
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Select
Synchronization
 
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From the
Frame Rate: pull down menu, select 24 to match our movie.
 
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Close the window by clicking on the upper left-hand corner.
 
I like to see a giant SMPTE display when I am scoring movies. To do this
 
Control-click on the Transport Window
 
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You will now see the following dialog box:
 
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Select
Open Giant SMPTE Display and you will see the Giant SMPTE display appear in your Arrange Window. You can position this display anywhere on your desktop
 
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To import a Video click on the
Open Movie… button.
 
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Locate the Mr. Bean Movie and click
Open.  You will now see the video in Logic's timeline and on your desktop.
 
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Note: To throw the movie into Logic's
Movie Window located in the Arrange Window click on the upper left-hand of the movie window and it will now move into the movie window.
 
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To bring the movie to the front again, just double click on the movie.
 
Hit the
spacebar on your computer keyboard, and Logic will follow the movie perfectly.
 
Importing The Video Audio Into Logic
 
Now that our movie is in place, we will want to import the movie's audio track into Logic. To do this:
 
Go to the
File pull down menu and select Import Audio From Movie
 
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You will now see the movie's audio track appear in the
Arrange Window.
 
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To view a brief tutorial on importing a movie into Logic, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 20
 
Exporting Your Soundtrack
 
Once you have composed your soundtrack you can export all or a portion of the movie. Here is how you do this:
 
Select the portion of the movie that you want to export using
Cycle
 
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From the
File pull down menu select, Export Audio To Movie
 
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You will now see the following:
 
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Here is an important tip for making the movie file smaller. Make sure for
Format you select AAC.
 
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Click
OK and you will now see the following:
 
 
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Keep clicking
OK and you will see your movie on your desktop complete with your soundtrack and the movie's original audio.
 
To view a brief tutorial on exporting a movie into Logic, click on the following link:
 
 
Clip 21
 
This concludes our Logic tutorial. This is by no means a complete tutorial for Logic. Logic is a VERY deep program and I have only scratched the surface here. Please go through the Apple Training Series on Logic.
 
Best,
 
Rik Pfenninger

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